Friends, this is the third lecture of secondmodule, in which we are talking about the kind of changes that are taking place, inIndian society.
In the last lecture, we focused on sanskritization, globalization, glocalizationhas forces of change in India, which are of significance to study demographic trends inIndia.
Now one thing, which emerge out of the previous lectures is that Indian reality,so diverse – geographically, economically, socially, that you cannot generalize anythingto India as a whole.
It is not sufficient to say whether death rate in India is decliningor the birth rate in India has gone down from nearly seven children to nearly two children,because there are differences and these difference are more in terms of development.
If there are geographical difference, if there are social difference, if there are economicdifferences, if there are difference between different communities.
Then they are largely,because there are differences in the indicators of development between different regions,groups, and communities.
Now, today’s lecture is specifically focused on the kind of differenceswe have in development in the country.
Now, first of all it is important to recognizethat India is a developing country.
In terms of indicators of development, here we aretalking about material development, one can make a distinction between material development,and a spiritual development.
In social sciences we are most of the time concerned with thoseindicators or those process which can be empirically examine.
So, we are not interested in way concepts like happiness or spiritual development, thoughI am aware that they are now lot of literature, which shows that there are differences inhappiness or spiritual development between different country and ironically the countrywhich are economically backward, seem to be better in terms of scales of happiness, butin this lecture i will be using the term development in relation to factors like income, literacy,life expectancy, level of formulization, per capita energy consumption and in these terms,in terms of material development India is far behind the developed countries.
UnitedNation development programme has developed certain indices of development and one ofthem is human development index, this human development index consist of three parts knowledge,or literacy, or adult education, health measured in terms of life expectancy and economic developmentmeasured in terms of per capita income, at prices which can be compared there is a technicalterm for that.
Now, if we compare development with respectto knowledge, health, and economic development per capita and develop a composite index,which is what human index is about, may be sometime I will explain the technical partof human development index more.
Today it suffysis to say that United Nations developmentprogramme or UNDP in short.
In human development report 2009, collected data from 182 countriesof the world.
And on the basis of human development of index classified them into 4 categories,very high human development 1 to 38.
There are 38 countries which are at the top of developmentsin terms of human development index.
Then there are other country 39 to 83, which areclassified as high human development and there is a medium human development for ranks 84to 158 and below 158 means 159 to 182.
We have countries with low human developmentindex.
If you are not aware of the international development scenario, you will be quite surprisedto see that out of these 182 countries in terms of human development index, India standsat 134th positions.
So, that means we are at the medium if you are happy to use thecategory of UNDP, then you are at the medium level of human development, but from my prospectiveactually it is a low human development.
They have classified certain African country, thatvery poor values of human development index and no human development.
So, we can somehowescape that level of remaining at low levels of human development.
But you can imagine,out of 182 we are at 134th positions.
Now ironically, not only India has low incomeand low levels of development, it also has one of the most stratified societies havinghighest degree of inequality.
Somewhere in literature on social stratification, I wasreading that unfortunately the developed countries have a better a value of parity or equityor equality between different sections, communities, regions, groups.
And countries like ours wherelevels of development are low there are also the most rigidly stratified societies.
Notall societies are stratified along caste lines as our societies is, but in terms of degreeof inequality or in terms of degree of gaps, gender gap, social group gap, regional gaps,urban rural gaps, less developed countries are more egalitarian as compared to developedcountries.
So, there is a big and increasing gap, not only big gap but also increasinggap between the rich and the poor.
The students of economics know that it ispossible to calculate Laurence curve or gene concentration ratio, if you have data on distributionof income or expenditure.
And our 11th five year plan document government document showsthat in certain respect this gene concentration ratio, gene coefficient gene coefficient showsthat the gap between the rich and the poor has enlarged.
So, there is a big and increasinggap between the rich and the poor, the urban and the rural, and formal and the informal,formal sector, informal sector, formal means registered, organized, informal means unregistered,hidden, unorganized, self employment and things like that.
Then the north and the south, andthe city and the slums within urban areas city and the slums.
And this situation needto be changed, how? There are orthogenetic changes, there are heterogametic changes.
Orthogenetic changes refer to changes from within and heterogametic changes, too changesfrom outside.
In the last lecture I said that, changes like Sanskritization or little andgreat tradition, parochialization and universalization, refer to changes which are caused by orthogeneticforces and changes like westernization, globalization and as the result of that glocalization, theresult from heterogametic sources of change.
Changes are also brought about by state throughplan, intervention, by civil society, by social movement, social organizations, reforms, reformgroups.
Here we are more, at least right now we are more concerned with what Indian stateis doing to tackle these ironies or differences or problems of stratification.
According to planning commission the Indianeconomy has had the impressive record of growth in the 10th plan.
So, although we come inthe medium level of development countries, but in the recent past, in post reform periodafter 1990s, we have had an impressive record of growth.
In the 10th 5 year plan our growthrecord in term of growth of national income or national income per capital was quite remarkable.
One can say that, for the first time we are going beyond what was our layer called theHindu rate of growth or a civil growth pattern.
So, these positive factors not withstanding,I have coating 11th five year plan draft, these positive factors not withstanding.
Ameasure weakness in the economy is that the growth is not perceived has been sufficientlyinclusive for many groups.
Inclusive means, beneficial for many groups.
Especially schedulecaste, schedule tribes, and minorities.
Gender in equality also remains a pervasive problem,and some of the structural changes taking place have an adverse effect on womenSo, not only that the condition of women has not improve to the extend it should or hasnot come up to the level of equality or parity, certain types of processes of developmentof change have had adverse impact on women.
The lack of inclusiveness is born out by dataon several dimensions or performances as said by planning commission.
So, one can questionthis kind of categorization of planning commission, and one can use some alternative criteriaor groups to explore the problem of disparity in the country.
That beside the point; rightnow, we are dealing more with reality of inequalities with respect to some of these groups, on whichdata are more easily available, where you can make other groups and if empirical dataare available, you can examine differences according to those groups, but it has becomenow almost customary to analyze data according to these categories.
In this backdrop the 11th 5 year plan hascome up with the paradigm of inclusive growth.
How do they define inclusive growth? The meaningis obvious, if the development, the fast development of post reform period has not benefitted allsections of society equally.
Then we should look for the model of development, the paradigmof development whose benefits reach out more to the disadvantage sections.
So, to code from planning commission draft, this is the pattern of growth in which allsocial groups that is SCs, STs, OBCs and others are equal beneficiaries and also the minorities,women, rural areas, backward regions, street children, drug addicts, disable and old people.
And accordingly, for the future there aretwo explicit aims of development; growth and inclusiveness.
So, somebody can say that whatis new in this.
Actually, right from the beginning from the 1st 5 year plan itself, we have beentalking up to in goals that India needs development and the benefits of development should goto all sections of society.
So, growth plus equity, sometime growth is emphasized more,sometimes equity is emphasized more, sometime there are special development programmersfor the disadvantage sections, sometime there are state interventions in the developmentprocesses, so that the benefits can reach out to the lagging sections of society.
11thplan examine the issue to poverty and development whether, health or literacy or employment,unemployment, good quality employment, housing by social group at great length, this is thefirst document.
It is interesting to read 11th 5 year plan draft, it is new in severalsenses and one sense is that, for the first time indicators of development are analyzeseparately for different social groups.
Chapter six of volume two is devoted to socialjustice.
It looks explicitly at the social, legal and other issues pertaining to developmentof schedule caste, schedule tribes, other backward classes, minorities and other vulnerablegroups.
Right from the time of post independent periodspecial problems of depressed caste, and other backward classes were recognized and specialprovisions were created to help them.
But the data show that disparity still persist,and there have been changes in the approach to benefit the other backward classes.
LikeI remember that, when the first backward class commission report was produced report hadrecommended reservation in administration and schools and colleges for children, forpeople belonging to other backward classes.
But Kaka Kalelkar Sahib; who were the chairmanof the backward class commission, himself oppose the recommendation of the commissionbecause he said that we are a democratic country.
Reservation will do good to backward classesno doubt, but it will create more problems than it solves.
It was in 1980 that after the mandal commission report or the report of the second backwardclass commission, that ultimately the recommendations got accepted.
Even now disparities contain.
In the recent times, apart from problems ofbackward classes, another new development in 11th 5 year plan is that apart from problemsof backward class is the problems of religious minorities particularly Muslims, has alsobecome a major issue.
Now, as such an sociology minority are defined in different ways, theoreticallythe term carries the notion of being outside the main stream or power, it has nothing todo with numbers.
But in our country for historical reasons, for reasons related to freedom struggle,minorities are defined more in terms of religion and linguistic groups and they are two, becausenot all minority are as backward as Muslims.
So, ultimately when we talk of minorities,we are talking of Muslims.
Commonly in India minorities are defined demographicallyas religious and linguistic minorities.
However, in political sociology as well as in developmentdiscourse most often minorities refer to Muslims.
The reason is that for various historicalreasons in contemporary in India Muslims have been lagging behind.
The reasons are historicalthat the upper classes of Muslim migrated to Pakistan when the country was divided intotwo parts, and those who continued to live in India had a relatively lower socio economicstatus.
The landlords, high ranking burocrates, army officers, doctors, poets, intellectualsthey left the country.
So, that itself was a reason why at the time of independence wehad differences among hindu.
Similarly, when people came from today’s Pakistan or Bangladesh,that time Pakistan.
Those who came to India from Pakistan belong to upper class of societybusinessmen, burocrates, army officers, doctors, lawyers, traders, traders many traders fromPunjab, landlords and they continue, such people landlord continued to come to Indiafrom Bangladesh, for several years after independence.
So, there was a disparity among majority communitiesor Hindus and minorities or Muslims.
There are many other linguistically and religiousminorities in the country such as Jains, Sikhs or people speaking some specific languagesin a small numbers, but there socio economic conditions is not so bad, like Jains.
Jains in terms of numbers; Jains, Sikhs, Pareses have the lowest proportion of population inthe country.
Sikh, Christians, Jains they are considerable but still two percent orless than two percent, but the socio economic condition is not bad.
Actually, Jains arethe most prosperous community in the country.
So, although they are demographically or inreligious in terms minority, but they are not lagging behind.
Its Muslims as religiousminority, who are lacking much behind the majority community of Hindus.
So, specialattention is create to the problems of Muslims.
The plan show that the condition of Muslimsin India is far behind, it clearly exhibits that the condition of minorities is not goodand this maybe one reason why they often tend to fall back on tradition and communitarianideologies and resist modernization.
There is a common charge against Muslim communitythat they are communitarian, whatever their community leaders or ulamas, or religiousleaders, or whatever deobandi school, or barelvi school you know these people say.
OrdinaryMuslims tend to accept them, there is no resista nce or revolt there are fathwas, but we donot understand the fact that there are socio economics historical reasons behind this,and backwardness in socio economic terms is a major factor in such ideologies, there isa need to uplift them and bring at par with the majority.
At the same time as said earlier, it has to be emphasize that the Muslims do not constitutea monolithic communities.
So, you should also not carry the impression that the whole Muslimcommunities, homogenous or monolithic, or if we are saying that Muslims are poor thenall Muslims are poor, no.
Within Muslim community there is lot of segmentation, fragmentation,division, inequality very similar nature as among Hindus.
Among Muslims there are cast,Sikh, Sayed, Pathans, Mughals, there are Ashrafs and there are Ansari's, or Qureshi's, or otherswho are Hajraf’s, there are urban rural difference, there are landlords, there arepoor.
In Kerala most Muslims are traders and theirsocio economic condition is much better than the condition of majority community in mostdistricts.
You come to north and the condition of Muslim is bad.
So, within the communitythere are differences and there are rich and poor, educated and uneducated, modern andtraditional, highly westernize, there are highly westernize Muslims, there are highlytraditional or alienated.
Thus they too require a differentiated approach, something whichgoes in the favor of what we said post modern theory.
Differentiated approach, there aredifferences, there are differences within differences.
So, there are social groups,communities, regions and within those social groups communities, regions again there arevarious types of segmentation and Indian demographic reality therefore, has to deal with all thesethings, and is quite diverse.
All of you must have heard sometime of theother about such a committee report, and the 11th 5 year plan document produces certainfigures, data, certain bullets from there have drawn this slide and two more slideson the basis of 11th 5 year plan draft, nothing from my side.
Now, according to this box 6.
1its only a reproduction of a box given in the 11th 5 year plan.
So, if you look at some of these bullets theyshow that Muslims have the highest rate of stunting, malformation, malnutrition, lowlevel of development in biological terms.
And second highest rate of underweight children.
25 percent Muslim children in the age group 6 to 14 years have either never attended schoolor have dropped out.
The figure is much higher than the corresponding figure for Hindus orother religious communities.
Only one out of every 25 undergraduate, 50 post graduatestudents in premier colleges is a Muslim.
You ask yourself in this class, how many ofyou are Muslims.
When I teach something about society of India or social stratificationon inequality, the very first thing when I go to a class, I ask tell me in this classof size close to 100, how many are Muslims? You know if nearly 15 percent population ofIndia consist of Muslims, when I expect that in other factors remaining same, if thereis no discrimination or anything.
Then in a class of 100 students; there shouldbe around 15 Muslims, there should be around 50 girls, but in engineering colleges wherereservation for women does not exist, in systems like IIT’S, you hardly find that in a classof 100 there are 5 girls and there are 1 or 2 Muslims.
Tech and PHD program thereare hardly Muslims, may be 1 in 100 or 1 in 500.
Our planning commission compiling datafor the whole country of undergraduate education, post graduate education is saying that outof every 25 undergraduate students in premier colleges is a Muslim, that means 4 percent,one out of every 25 only 4 percent of Muslims, at post graduate levels M TECH, PHD, MS, MBAone in 50 is a Muslims, that means only 2 percent.
If the population of Muslims in Indiais about 15 percent, but in schools and colleges you find that are undergraduate and postgraduatelevels they are 2 to 4 percent.
This says a lot about the condition of Muslims in thecountry and sachar committee report points it out very clearly and this has been reproducedin the plan draft.
Similarly, NCAER means national council ofapplied economic research figures show that only about 4 percent of all Muslim studentsare enrolled in Madarsas, there is a myth that Muslim children go to Madarsa.
NCAERfigure show that only 4 percent of Muslims children go to Madarsas.
Workforce participationrate, another indicator of development, workforce participation rate among Muslim women is only25 percent; that means, 75 percent Muslim women are confine to home making and comparethem with other women, in rural areas 29 percent of Muslim women participate in the workforce.
In rural areas more women participate in work as compare to urban areas the work is differentits mostly in the form of labor or cultivation or a small industry, household industry, crafts,artizans.
But even in rural areas only 29 percent Muslimwomen participate in the work force.
The corresponding figure for Hindus of all categories is 70percent.
So, see the difference in condition of women between Muslims and Hindus.
61 percent of the total Muslim workers areself employed, as against 55 percent of Hindu workers.
73 percent of Muslim women are selfemployed as compare to 60 percent for Hindus or that can imply, because Muslim women donot find a regular employment, good quality employment in the formal sector.
So, theybecome self employed, they are working in agriculture, there in arts crafts, handicrafts,they are working as laborers and 73 percent of the workers as said earlier, you know only29 percent of Muslim women participate in work and 73 percent of Muslim women were workersare self-employed.
Most of them are self employed and the figure is much higher than the figurefor Hindus.
Then only about 27 percent of the Muslim workersin urban areas are engage in regular work, as compare to 40 percent schedule cast, scheduletribe 36 percent OBC and 49 percent Hindu upper cast workers.
Regular work is betterquality of work, you get better remuneration, you have more safety and, you have more socialsecurity, you have provident fund, pension and in this kind of work 49 percent Hinduupper cast workers are in regular work, as against that among Muslims this figure is27 percent.
Less than 24 percent of Muslim regular workerare employed in the public sector, or in government jobs, as compare to 39 percent regular SC,ST workers.
37 percent Hindu upper cast and 30 percent OBC workers; that means, governmentjobs are captured more by schedule cast and schedule tribes and to some extent Hindu uppercast OBCs are less and Muslims are particularly less.
The share of Muslim male workers engage in street wending, especially without any fixedlocation is 12 percent as against the national average of 8 percent.
Also, the share of Muslims in public orderand safety activities at the central government level is only 6 percent.
Hindu upper castworkers have a share of 42 percent, and both SC ST and OBCs have 23 percent share each.
The share of Muslims among defense workers is only 4 percent.
We do not know whetherMuslims, some people may say that Muslims do not want to join defense services or Muslimsmay say that there is discrimination against Muslims soldiers or Muslim officers.
See thispitiable condition that Muslims who constitute 15 percent population of India.
In defenseservices they constitute only 4 percent.
Compare to other regular workers, a much largerproportion of Muslim regular workers have no written contact, 73 percent have no writtencontact against 52 percent for Hindu upper cast and 63 percent each for Hindu OBCs andschedule cast and schedule tribes and no social security benefit.
70 percent, 71 percent ofMuslims have no social security benefit.
So, in emergency, in old age they have to fallback on family tradition or social service organization as compare to only 55 percent.
They should not imply that Hindus are in very good condition, among them also 55 percentpeople have no social security.
So, condition is bad universally, that is why India is onlya middle level of development country or some people may even say a poor country, a developingeconomy, 134th position we have seen.
But within the country there are very significantdifference between social groups, communities and regions.
When this is true, you know these differences between Muslims and Hindus, do they not explainwhy in demographic terms Muslim are lagging behind, why Muslim mortality is higher, whyMuslim fertility is high, why there is resistance to family planning program among Muslims,and why there are occasional cases of resistance even to pulse polio.
You should not judgethese facts from prejudice mind, you see as the sachar committee report has already pointedout and is reproduce in our 11th 5 year plan draft, there is lot of gap between Muslimsand Hindus and that gap express the differences in demographic terms.
So, coming to in development term particularly in the context of demography, what do we expect?Our plan say that we expect reducing maternal mortality rate or reducing maternal mortalityratio, there is a difference between ratio and rate, but for the time being let us takethem to be same.
And we want to reduce these two 1 per 1000live births, right now it is more than 350 per 1,00,000 live births.
5 per 1,000.
Which is one of the highest level of maternal mortality ratio in the world.
In some of thedeveloped countries this has already come down to 3 or 4 per 1,00,000.
So, from thatprospective we have very high figure, similar to many African countries.
Reducing infantmortality rate to 28 which is still above 50, reducing total fertility rate to 2.
1,we are very near to 2.
Providing clean drinking water for all by 2009, reducing malnutritionamong children of age group 0-3 to half, reducing anemia, anemia is a serious problem amongwomen and more than 50 percent women in the country are anemic.
Which leads to many othercomplications like postpartum hemorrhage and is a major cause of mater high maternal mortalityratio.
Then raising the sex ratio for age group 0to 6, juvenile sex ratio.
Last time we talked about juvenile sex ratio, why juvenile sexratio is declining and in which region it is declining more? To 935 by 20011-12, weexpect that the next census, if the efforts of the state and the effort of N G O civilservice organization, civil service organization, social service organization, volunteer sector,development sector have resulted any success then we expect 0 to 6 to improve, close to935 by 20011 or 2012 and 950 by 2016, 2017.
The above goals assume that the health andfamily welfare are closely associated with women place, you see all these indicatorsare defining in terms of women or girls, girl child.
In the patriarchal structure in India women are associated with reproduction, as theyhave low literacy, low awareness, low entitlements, low decision making power, they produce morechildren then they want.
There are so many survey to show that women desire or preferless number of children, ideal family size for women is much less than the ideal sizefor men.
If they are entitled, if they have higher position in decision making, if theyare literate educated, if they can influence their husband’s decision making then thefertility can fall further.
And many women suffer from malnutrition, morethan 50 percent in anemia and face high maternal mortality, in such a society a girl childis a burden on parents.
Therefore, the family forces the pregnant woman to go for sex determinationtest and abort the baby, if the baby yet to be born is female.
I have explained this idea in the form ofa diagram, status of women effects their power in decision making, family decision making,entitlement facilities and when the status of women is low, low literacy, low nutrition,etcetera.
This effect their decision making power and both these factors ultimately resultin poor demographic indicators.
So, we have poor demographic indicators and the reasonis this.
As said earlier, women’s issues are thereforeconnected with socio economic status and they are connected with regional.
In general thestatus of women in the southern states, that is on the southern side of Vindhyachal rangeis better than in the northern states.
This dividly reflected well in all the health anddemographic parameters.
This means that the health issues, women issues, and regionalissues are to be handled simultaneously.
Women take care of household activities.
Theseare two figures, two pictures from photograph that we recently took in some empirical studies.
This shows how a women us associated with household, and women are not only associatedwith cooking, cleaning, maintaining households.
What we found that, if there is a need incase of emergency, in case somebody fall sick or in case somebody has to support other membersof family economically, so that others can go to school and prosper, it is usually thewomen who are victims.
So, women are not only confine to home making, in the sense of maintaininghousehold and in the sense of reproduction, but if need arises then women are droppedout or either women are doing the kind of work which is unpaid like this women,you know, This women is doing unpaid work, women’swork is not recognized.
We have seen in our survey that in tribal societies also, whereposition of women is somewhat better and their contribution to family income is much bigger.
There also gender disparity exist and status of women as reflected by literacy, health,nutrition, maternal mortality ratio has not shown disparity with men.
Although, we have also found that wherever women get opportunity to work, outside inpolitical, cultural or other fields, they do much better.
In my research last time inHimachal Pradesh I found that at the level of blocks in panchayet samities, women electedrepresentatives were much more enthusiastic to work for the community.
They were, theirmorals was much higher and they look more happy, more cheerful, more interested in communityactivity as compare to males, who are more interested in power and if they are not gettingadequate funds you know from their expectation.
Then they become demoralize soon and withdrawfrom community activities or take a very little interest.
There are special in equalities.
So, the boxindicates that in terms of human development index.
Now this human development index, Imentioned in the beginning of today’s lecture is based on education, health and income.
Government of India has encouraged states to compute human development index at thestate level and district level.
Now, efforts are also being made to compute human developmentindex at the block level, Ultimately, we want to go for differentiate, regionally differentiatedplanning, decentralize, real decentralize.
In decentralize economy the villages mustdecide for themselves but that stage has not yet come.
If you look at figures at the statelevel, then we find that Kerala with human development index of 0.
773 is at the top,and a state like Assam with a human development index 0.
407 is at the bottom, Madhaya Pardeshis only 0.
394, Orissa is 0.
404, Rajasthan is 424, these are some states where humandevelopment index is low.
Then there are also variations between districts of the same state,look at the figures for Maharashtra, Maharastra has relatively good human development.
InMaharashtra human development is 0.
580, but it also has the highest coefficient of variation36.
It is because in Maharashtra you have Bombay which is highly developed.
Mumbai,now we call Mumbai.
And there are other districts which are as backward as the districts ofUP or Bihar.
So, interestingly Kerala has the least interdistrict variation; Kerala not only has the high value of human development index, butit has least inter district variation; that means, all districts of Kerala have benefitedfrom development more or less uniformly.
On the other end Maharashtra has highest interdistrict diversity, it has one district which has perfect value of development index, butalso district where HDI is lower than that of a any other district of the country.
Government of India has divided all the statesof India into two categories on the basis of the development, status and needs.
Thespecial category states are north eastern states; Arunachal Pardesh, Assam, Manipur,Meghalay, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura, these so called seven sisters belong to onesubcategory or special category states.
Then there is Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmirand Utharakhand.
All of them are sorts of hilly state and also the boundary states,there are all boundary states of India, then others come under non special category states.
This means that the problems of Arunachal Pradesh and other north eastern states, HimachalPradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Utharakhand have to be tackle on a priority bases andwith the special emphasis.
In the 11th plan there are 13 targets; Now, we are trying to go for development withfollowing indicators.
GDP growth rate, gross domestic product, agricultural growth rate,new work opportunities, poverty ratio, dropout rate in elementary schools, literacy rate,gender gap in literacy, infant mortality rate, maternal mortality ratio, total fertilityrate, child malnutrition, anemia among women and girls and sex ratio.
So, for monitoringof development these are 12 indicator.
So, when we say that 5 year plan document saythat, we want to see India at high levels of development, it means that India must prosperor improve in terms of these indicators of development.
It is hope that with inclusive growth approachthat focuses on the condition of lagging social groups and regions.
Lagging social groupsare schedule caste, schedule tribes, OBCs, street children, elderly population, drugaddicts, in social group mostly SC, ST or OBC, minorities.
In terms of regions UP, Bihar,Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, so called bimaru states, Orissa rural areas of west Bengal,Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh.
So, if you want to have a inclusive growth and only when we willhave inclusive growth, we can achieve demographic transition in the whole country.
Otherwise,if some social groups and some regions remain backward, we cannot have demographic transitionat the national level as a whole.
We are living in a differentiated world while some socialgroups upper caste, upper classes, metropolitan or those living in Kerala.
They are many of them are moving towards, so called second stage of demographic transition.
The lagging groups and lagging reasons are in the first or second stage of transition.
So, in some we can say that Indian societyhighly diversified.
Diversified in terms of social groups, in terms of gender; males andfemales, in terms of religious and linguistic groups and in terms of regions.
The processesof change have further divided society horizontally and vertically.
What is this horizontal andvertical? When we talk of social groups which are often arranged hierarchical manner, SC,ST, OBC, general.
We are talking of vertical, and when we are talking of say physicallyhandicap, street children or self employed, or drug addicts, or some other vulnerablesexual minority etcetera.
We are talking of horizontal groups.
Because these groups arefound in all vertical groups, in all the communities and social groups which are arranged hieratically.
States which are doing better in development, Haryana, Punjab, Kerala, they are at a fasterrate than the states which are growing at a slower pace.
So, regions which are already developed.
Gujarat is already developed, and is further developingfaster than Bihar, which is backward and is not growing at such a pace.
There is a needto follow a differentiate approach.
Ultimately, in this course we are more interested in demographicissues, and the lesson that we learn from study of these differences groups, regions,gender in that we need a differentiated approach to demographic problems of different sectionsand sub sections of population.
The same approach to fertility reduction, the same approachto family planning to raise contraceptive acceptance, which can work amongst a Brahmsor Chattriya’s or Vashayes.
In metropolitan cities which are educated,which are modern, which are in good quality job or good business or trading.
So, thatapproach cannot work when it comes to poor, rural, Muslims or Parsees or anyway Parsees,population of Parsees are already declining.
They rather need a different approach thattheir mortality must decline and their fertility rate must be go up.
So, in the same countryyou have very different scenarios.
There is a need to reduce fertility among Muslims,there is a need to reduce fertility among the lowest social groups, but there is a needto increase fertility among communities like Parsees.
It is not enough to pay attention to macrolevel trends.
The problems of India can be solved only by focusing on most disadvantagesections in most backward state, and not only sections and states, but also on problemsof women, children and elderly population.
If the demographic diversity persists, andis confounded with socio economic and political disparities, it can ruin the democratic fabricof the country and lead to political disintegration.
It cannot happen that for a long time, onecommunity continues to grow economically and because to has also control its fertility.
So, there are more rapid gains in terms of per capita income and there are other communitywhich are not growing economically and because they are passing through the population explosionsituation, where mortality has declined and fertility is still high.
So, their growth in per capita terms is a still very sluggish.
Therefore, the gap inper capita income of the two types of communities is widening.
We will certainly not be ableto achieve the goal of inclusive growth if the situation continues.
So, this is whatI wanted to say in these 2, 3 lectures about the nature of Indian society.
At the end of this lectures, I suppose thatyou will be able to answer, what will be the difference in value and norms.
In very shortI can say that values are the standards, norms are the accepted procedure.
We have defined the concept of sanskritization and westernization, Sanskritization is emulationof ideology rituals and practices of the upper caste, upper classes.
Westernization is whathappen in India during the British rule.
The idea of equality, democracy, rationality andindustrialization and economic developmentry.
Then the policy of protective discrimination,what is the effect of policy of protective discrimination of sanskritization? You knowthis has something to do with the idea of dominant caste, when certain caste prosper.
Means, when secular status of caste goes out, then it effect the sanskritization, it effectstheir position on the caste, who is ambulating whom.
So, not always Brahmans are the sources of sanskritization; dominant caste, many of themOBC and SCs and STs.
Which are prosper under the policy of protective discrimination, havethemselves become the source of sanskritization and that will affect the demographic trendsin the country.
Then globalization, in the last lecture wetalked about globalization and today we talked about inclusive growth.
There is an exercisefor you, you collect data on sex ratio on age group 0-6 for major states of India, andsee if there are significant differences.
Can you guess why are these differences; whatcan you tell about social institute and processes, which are responsible for differences in juvenilesex ratio, means sex ratio in 0 to 6 years, between different states of India.
Then reviewthe skill development policy of India, go through some pages of the 11th 5 year plan,and see how the plan aims to achieve inclusive growth and development for all of sectionsof society in the next 5 to 10 years.
Quite often, we are criticized that all the timewe are talking about development in terms of SC ST it is possible, why not talk in termsof poor people or rich people.
Okay, it is possible to develop an alternative conceptof social class, make an effort to develop an alternative concept of social class andargue that for the policy of protective discrimination, your concept is more useful than the planningcommission concepts.
Think what are the sources of weakness religions of Indian society, andmaybe you can try a short note on region in equality in India and their implications fordemographic diversity.
Now, here are some references which can beof some use to you.
For mandal commission, for knowing more about what is OBC, how areOBCs constructed and what were the recommendations, whether there was any decent, why there wasany decent, this Agarwal’s, S.
P Agarwal, J.
C Agarwal’s book can be of great help.
Then you have census; census data there on net many types of aggregate level data from2001 census can be obtained from net only and net also gives 2011 approach to census,census questionnaire, items, what is already been done towards household service and relatedissues.
For modernization, post modernization you can read an article from current sociologist,it is by Lee Raymond 94, there is another article in the same journals, same issues,which talks about globalization and cultural change and in which the idea of glocalizationis discussed.
Then you have 11th 5 year plan, all 5 year plans from 1st to 11th are givenon internet, and you done have to go to library and you can see them from there.
Then there is K.
L Sharma book on social structureof India.
You all are familiar with Yogendra Singh’s book, Modernization of Indian tradition,in which talks about sanskritization and desanskritization, resanskritization.
And there is another bookby the same author, Social change in India, which talks about changes in family and otherinstitutions in the recent times.
N Srinivas – the basic book on sanskritization,which is always refer to, when we talk of sanskritization.
For human development index, etcetera.
You can go to UNDP website, and there are statisticsdata on human development indicators for all the countries of the word, for which dataare available, and there are different indicators, some are related to development, some to poverty,some are gender sensitive, gender sensitive indices, which not only take into considerationover all development, but also development of women.